Category: Church History (12 Posts)

Showing 1 - 10 of 12

Ignatius of Antioch

Ignatius of Antioch was one of the early church fathers. He grew up well educated in church doctrine because he was a disciple of the apostle John and Polycarp, the bishop of Smyrna. Eventually, he became the second bishop of Antioch. In his role as bishop, he was a defender of orthodoxy, and he became […]


Polycarp (c. AD 69-155) was the bishop of Smyrna (present day Izmir, Turkey) during the early part of the second century. A disciple of the apostle John, Polycarp is recognized as one of the Apostolic Fathers, a group of early church leaders directly connected with the apostles, who played a prominent role in preserving the […]

How Did the Apostle Paul Die?

The Bible contains many details of Paul’s life, both in the book of Acts and in his own letters, but only hints about his death are included. For that reason, we cannot be sure about the details, but putting biblical clues together with writings from the early church, it appears that he died a martyr’s […]

Was Peter the First Pope?

There is much controversy concerning whether Peter was the first pope. This question highlights how beliefs differ between the Roman Catholic Church and churches of the Reformation. Church bodies that broke away from the Roman Catholic Church during the Reformation, and after, deny the authority of the pope based on Scripture. So the answer based […]

Justin Martyr (c. AD 100–165)

Justin Martyr (c. AD 100-165) was an early Christian apologist, philosopher, and teacher. Born in Samaria and raised as a pagan, Justin was acquainted with both Jewish and Roman culture. Justin later moved to Ephesus, where he studied Stoic and Platonic philosophy. Justin was first introduced to Christianity when he encountered an old man who […]

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How Did the Apostle Peter Die?

Although the Bible does not tell us how the apostle Peter died, there is tradition that tells us that Peter likely died by crucifixion during the reign of Nero in about AD 64. When considering the martyrs, it is perhaps more edifying to know why they died rather than how. They died to follow their […]

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List of Church Fathers

This page contains a list of church fathers. For more information on a church father, click the link to go to a page with more details. Apostolic Church Fathers Clement of Rome (~ AD 96) Clement of Rome was bishop of the church in Rome. He is the author of the First Epistle of Clement, […]

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The Shepherd of Hermas: Why Isn’t It Canon?

The Shepherd of Hermas was written during the 2nd or 3rd century and contains teaching that is orthodox, not heretical. Some early church fathers—for example, Irenaeus—even considered the Shepherd of Hermas to be canonical. However, this book is not part of the biblical canon that we have today. Who Wrote the Shepherd of Hermas? We […]

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Who’s the Author of Second Clement?

The Second Epistle of Clement has Clement of Rome’s name attached to it, but there are significant doubts concerning whether this letter was actually written by Clement of Rome. No name is officially attached to what is referred to as the “Second Epistle of Clement.” Eusebius on 2 Clement Most significantly, Eusebius, a 4th century […]

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How Did the Apostle John Die?

The Bible does not tell us how the Apostle John died, so we simply cannot know for sure how he died. However, we do have some accounts from tradition that may help us figure out how he might have died. John Probably Died in Exile in Patmos Most likely, based upon the accounts of tradition, […]